Why does the Chrome  browser on Debian/Ubuntu not display Chinese characters, e.g. on Baidu.com?

Install these fonts packages and try to access the site again.

sudo apt-get install fonts-arphic-ukai fonts-arphic-uming

For other Linux distributions, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Windows or OS X, please check http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Multilingual_support_(East_Asian).